In this lesson, we will learn prefixes and suffixes in Tahitian: Faa, Haa, Raa, Hia.
Prefixes and suffixes in Tahitian?
In this first chapter, let’s start from the beginning: as in English, words can have:
- prefixes: positioned at the beginning of the word
- suffixes: positioned at the end of the word
The base word (the base of the word) is a noun, a verb, or an adjective.
We then have the construction: PREFIX – BASE – SUFFIX. The, the whole forms a new word.
For example :
|Te haapiiraa||The school, the teaching, the lesson|
Haapii is the base word which is here a verb. Be careful, the base word is not pii (to which we would have added a prefix haa).
Raa is the suffix for Haapiiraa. With Raa, Haapii becomes a noun: Te haapiiraa.
I repeat to be clear: affixing a prefix or a suffix creates a new word.
The main suffixes and prefixes in Tahitian
These are :
- Faa prefix
- Haa prefix
- Raa suffix
- Hia suffix
Come on, let’s meet these new friends!
|Create a verb||Transform the base word into a verb:
The base being the result of the action described by the verb.
The base starts with a vowel or with t, n, r, h
|Faa – Base|
|Create a verb||Same. The base starts with f, v, p, m||Haa – Base|
|Create a noun||Transform the base word into a noun, into a notion||Base – Raa|
|Change the point of view||Transform the verb (in the active form) into:
The point of view changes: In the active form, it is the point of view of the subject.
|Base – Hia|
This chapter is the heart of the lesson, if you need to read it over and over again, now is a good time!
Familiarize yourself with examples
We learned the theory in the previous chapter. Let us illustrate with examples to understand and assimilate. We take the opportunity to learn vocabulary too.
Faa – To build a verb with a base starting with a vowel or with t, n, r, h
|Ora||To live||Faaora||To save, to make live, to heal|
|Te itoito||The courage, the perseverance, the energy||Faaitoito||To encourage, to give yourself courage, to persevere. Good luck|
|‘Amu||To eat, to consume||Faa’amu||To feed, to raise, to adopt|
|Nehenehe||Pretty, beautiful||Faanehenehe||To embellish, to decorate|
|Ineine||Ready, in good order||Faaineine||To prepare|
Haa – To build a verb with a base starting with f, v, p, m
|Maita’i||Good, well, nice||Haamaita’i||To improve|
|Māuruuru||Thank you||Haamāuruuru||To thank|
|Te pe’ape’a||The worry||Haape’ape’a||To worry, to disturb|
|Pārarai||Thin||Haapārarai||To go on a diet|
|Fifi||Difficult, problematic||Haafifi||To complicate|
Raa – To build a noun
|Tāmāa||To have a meal, to lunch, to dinner||Te tāmāaraa||The feast|
|Haapii||To teach (haapii atu)To learn (haapii mai)||Te haapiiraa||The school, the teaching, the lesson|
|Te ora||The life||Te oraraa||The existence, the everyday life, the life at home|
|‘Amu||To eat, to consume||Te ‘amuraa māa||The meal, the dining table|
|Pārahi||To sit, to be seated||Te pārahiraa||The place, the seat, the chair|
Hia – To build a passive form, a past particle, an adjective
|Te ma’i||The disease, the sick||Ma’ihia||Sick|
|Fānau||To give birth, to bring into the world, to give birth, to beget, to procreate||Fānauhia||Born|
|‘Ite||To see, to know||‘Itehia||Seen|
|‘Amu||To eat, to consume||‘Amuhia||Eaten|
|Pārahi||To sit, to be seated||Pārahihia||Sat|
A little grammar
By now, we know Faa, Haa, Raa, Hia quite well. In this part, we will learn more about the adjoining grammatical constructions.
Translate when, while doing with Raa
|Grammar rule: Te… raa, te… raa ia
|1 / To translate: when, while doing, we use the construction:Te … raa, te … raa ia
The triggering of the 2nd part of the phrase coincides with the 1st.
2 / The 1st part of the sentence may not be specified. In this case, the trigger is done with the last event mentioned.
For example :
|To’u taeraa mai i Tahiti, te haapiraa mai ia vau i te reo tahiti||It was when I arrived in Tahiti that I started to learn Tahitian|
|Te ‘iteraa vau ia’ oe, te taaraa ia vau i to ‘oe hinaaro||When I saw you, I understood what you wanted|
|Te taaraa ia vau i to ‘oe hinaaro||I understood what you wanted.Example for case 2 /|
The new vocabulary:
|Taa||To be separate, to be distinct, to be understood|
|Hinaaro||To desire, to want, to wish|
The different uses of hia
We saw previously that Hia allows to transform the verb (in the active form) into:
- passive form
- or past participle
- or adjective
The point of view changes.
For example :
|Active form||Ua ‘amu’ o Mere i te âpara||Mere ate the apple||Mere does the act of eating the apple.In the active form, it is the subject’s point of view. It was Mere who ate the apple.|
|Passive form||Ua ‘amuhia te âpara||The apple has been eaten||The apple which was in function of complement of the sentence in the active form becomes subject.In the passive form, it is the complement point of view. It is the apple that has been eaten.|
|Adjective (impersonal form)||– Tei hea te âpara?- Ua ‘amuhia
– Ua parauhia mai au e, ua ‘amuhia
|– Where’s the apple?- Someone ate it
– Someone told me that someone ate it
|The idea is not to cite the subject. We translate into Rnglish by someone …We encounter a construction of relative proposition: that someone ate it.|
|Past participle||– Te âpara e ‘amuhia- Te âpara i ‘amuhia
– Ahea ra te âpara e ‘amuhia?
– Ahea te âpara i ‘amuhia?
|– The eaten apple- The eaten apple
– When the apple was eaten?
– When the apple was eaten?
|We see here that we use the particles i and e. These are constructions for relative propositions. We will see this in a future lesson.|
Tei hea = where?
We saw in the previous lesson the use of Tei: Locate in space in Tahitian – Locatives (Front, behind) – Tei
So Tei hea means where.
Let us review the points of the lesson thanks to this short dialogue.
|Te taeraa ‘o Pāpā i te fare,||When daddy came home,|
|Te haapihaaraa ia Māmā i te pape no te taofe.||Mom was boiling water for coffee.|
|Ua mānii ‘o Māmā i te taofe i roto i te âu’a||Mom poured the coffee in the bowl.|
|Ua faano’ano’a ‘o na i te taofe mā te û haari.||She flavored the coffee with coconut milk.|
|E au rāua i tera taofe inuhia ra.||They enjoyed this coffee they drank.|
The already known vocabulary
The vocabulary already encountered in the previous lessons is as follows:
|Tae||To arrive, to reach, to achieve|
|Te pape||The water|
|Te taofe (from English, coffee)||The coffee|
|I roto||Inside, in|
|Te âu’a||The bowl, the cup|
|Au||To like, to apreciate|
The new vocabulary
The new words are:
|Te no’ano’a||The perfume|
|Mā||Clean, pure, accompanied by, and the others|
|Te û||The milk|
|Te haari||The coconut|
|Te û haari||The coconut milk|
To sum up
With this lesson, we have just learned how to construct new words by juxtaposing prefixes and / or suffixes to a base word in Tahitian. The prefixes are faa, haa and the suffixes are raa and hia. We also learned 48 vocabulary words and expressions. Yippee!